The round trip between information becoming available and a trade taking place is critical. There are a series of steps a trader, CTO, CIO or investor can take to achieving low-latency trading. On the financial markets, every nanosecond counts – today, a successful trader is not just the smartest, he/she is also the fastest. Optimizing systems for low-latency trading requires six key layers to be addressed: Execution Platform, Operating System, Computer Hardware, Local Network Infrastructure, Wide Area Network, and Exchange Matching Engine. ED&F Man Capital Markets has produced an overview of how to achieve low-latency optimization of these layers.