This conceptual theory was applied early on
This conceptual SMI-4a was applied early-on to select a set of reference indicators – DCN, H/C molar ratio, MWave, and TSI – as “fuel combustion property targets” that if shared by another fuel, would result in similar fully prevaporized global combustion behaviors. A minimal set of surrogate components were selected based upon their ability to contribute to the three distinct functionalities mentioned above. A 1st generation surrogate composition (n-dodecane, iso-octane, and toluene) was defined that could emulate the H/C ratio and DCN, but not both the TSI and MWave of the specific reference real fuel simultaneously, with the intention that there were developed models for its components to offer an analysis of the results. A 2nd second generation composition (n-dodecane, iso-octane, 1,3,5, trimethyl benzene, and n-propyl benzene) was found to replicate all four property target combinations. The formulation methodology was tested experimentally in a wide range of venues and experimental conditions to compare real fuel and formulated surrogate mixture global combustion, with the expectation that additional property targets might emerge. The method was proofed using a Jet A fuel sample (POSF 4658) and a synthetic paraffinic kerosene (POSF 4773 S-8) as fuel targets  and . A wider range of JP-8 fuels and fully hydrogenated, synthetic fuels from natural gas, coal, and bio oils and alcohols has since been similarly studied , ,  and . Higher molecular weight n-alkanes and iso-alkanes have been added to the 2nd generation surrogate component pallet  and , and the surrogate concept has also been shown to apply to producing mixtures of multi-species hydrocarbon fluids, including other fuels, to emulate the global combustion properties of a target jet fuel  and .