Recently, natural IAA have been detected in the blood and NVP-BKM120 of volunteers for up to 6 h following the consumption of natural hopped brown bottled beers using a newly developed ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) procedure  and . These preliminary IAA pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that IAA compounds can be detected and suggests that the structurally similar reduced IAA may also be able to be targeted. Furthermore, there have been toxicity  and pharmacokinetic studies investigating reduced IAA, particularly RIAA and TIAA, due to their possible medicinal properties such as weight loss, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory , , , ,  and . Of these, two studies detected RIAA and TIAA in New Zealand white rabbits , and one measured RIAA in humans , confirming those reduced IAA groups examined were indeed bioavailable. The long-term stabilities of the reduced IAA groups in stored blood recently concluded that they were less susceptible to degradation than the natural IAA, and refrigeration or freezing conditions provided acceptable stability .