We start our discussion by

Fig. 2. The switching current versus voltage (a) dP/dV curve (b), hysteresis loop of polarization (c) for Ag/BTO/LCMO heterostructure measured at 5 kHz, and the resistance versus temperature curve of LCMO thin film (d).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 3. I–V characteristics of the heterostructure measured below 220 K in linear scales (a) and at 250–320 K in semilogarithmic scales (b). The inset shows the ratio of dlog(I)/dlog(V) for I–V curve measured at 290 K. Arrows P50515 just for visual guide showing the direction of curves traced.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 4. (a) Sixteen I–V hysteresis loops measured at random locations on the macroevolution BTO surface at 320 K in semi-log scale. (b) Schematic idealized band diagram for Ag, BTO, LCMO and Ag capacitor structure before contact. (c) Time dependence of leakage current values in Ag/BTO/LCMO heterostructure on SrTiO3 substrates, read at 2.5 V after two opposite writing pulse (6 V, 100 μs). (d) Polarization dependence under fatigue pulse with voltage/width of 6 V/1.0 μs read at 5 V.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide