The surface microstructures of the control and treated cotton fabrics were observed by FESEM. As shown in Fig. 4a, the control cotton fabric displayed a regular weave structure accompanying with a lot of protruding fibers on its surface. At a higher magnification, many native strips along the fibers and numerous interspaces among the highly intertwined fibers with the diameters varied from 12 μm to 16 μm were observed in Fig. 4b. It means the control cotton fabric has a relatively rough surface in the micrometer scale. The cotton fabric was coated by a dense and uniform film through the air low pressure Geldanamycin with a RF power of 80 W for 2 min (Fig. 4c). The film may cover a single fiber or multiple fibers of the cotton fabrics. All the results indicate that a polymer film has been successfully formed on the cotton fabric through the low-temperature plasma induced grafting polymerization of D4Vi. A dense and uniform thin film could also be formed on the surface of cotton fabric when the RF power was increased to 120 W (Fig. 4d) or the treatment time is prolonged to 5 min (Fig. 4e). It should be pointed out that many small particles and some bulk objects could also been found on the film surface. We believe that they are also the reaction products of D4Vi polymerization. When the treatment time of the low-temperature plasma was increased to 7 min, the films covering the fiber surfaces slough fractionally, probably caused by etching of active particles produced by the low pressure glow discharge plasma . Furthermore, the longer the plasma-treated time, the more serious the etching effect is .