The SPS apparatus has a maximum voltage of 15 V and a maximum current of 5500 A. The current is a pulsed DC current with a pulse duration of 3.3 ms. The apparatus is run in the pulse sequence of “12:2”, as recommended by the manufacturer, meaning that Doxorubicin 12 consecutive pulses are followed by 2 periods of rest. The apparatus is described in more detail in reference  and the geometry of its central parts can be seen in Fig. 12, in connection to the simulations described in paragraph.
The particle size of the 1 h ball-milled powder was investigated using a SHIMADZU SALD-2101 apparatus. The result was obtained as normalized particle amount vs. particle diameter in a semi-logarithmic diagram.
The phases of the samples were analyzed by a PANalytical X'pert PRO XRD-apparatus, using Cu Kα radiation with λ = 0.15406 nm. In order to evaluate the crystallite size, peak broadening of the XRD patterns and Scherrer’s equation, Eq. (1), were used.equation(1)D=0.9λ/(β.Cosθ)D=0.9λ/β.Cosθ