Nano ZnO composite nanofibers as antibacterial wound dressing materials have been prepared using an advanced synthetic route by Shalumon et al. (2011). ZnO nanoparticles were incorporated into PVA/sodium alginate hydrogel nanofibers using the electrospinning technique. In this PF-04457845 study, authors regarded that the addition of ZnO into PVA/SA is a key factor to change many of the hydrogel nanofiber properties. Results demonstrated that incorporation of low ZnO nanoparticle concentration into PVA/SA hydrogel mats is less toxic and good L929 cells spread than those with higher concentrations of ZnO, which is toxic in nature. Moreover, PVA/SA/ZnO mats showed excellent antibacterial activity and formed the inhibition zone against the growth of E. coli and S. aureus due to the presence of ZnO nanoparticles in the mat components. Accordingly, this study suggested that PVA/SA/ZnO nanofiber mats could be potential wound dressing composite materials with the optimal ZnO concentration which gave least toxicity ( Shalumon et al., 2011).