Wind power is a RE with huge resource availability and a large deployment rate, and is thus one of the most promising GHG mitigation technologies. Assessments suggest that the resource potential of wind power is large, although uncertain, with a practical potential range of 70–450 EJ/year and the technical potential for as much as 5700 EJ/year , , ,  and , which could supply a significant proportion of all world energy needs. Studies also show that for regions with limited resource MGCD 0103 for onshore wind, offshore wind could provide a key source of renewable energy . Furthermore, the resource potential of all RE exceeds the current energy demand by at least one order of magnitude; thus, global and regional technical potential are unlikely to limit RE deployment .
Despite its rich resource potential and importance in mitigating climate change, however, future deployment of RE may be affected by various factors, such as competition with alternative sources of energy and technology, high direct economic costs, regional heterogeneity of resources, systems-integration constraints  and climate policy issues, such as a carbon tax . Further assessment of RE penetration needs to take these aspects into account, comprehensively. However, how these factors affect RE penetration is not quantified by resource assessment studies or by integrated assessment studies.