It is evident from Table nbsp most of

Results also suggested that the path towards large-scale renewable AT 9283 deployment is not a problem with economic constraints. Conversely, the increasing share of technologies with high investment cost and low marginal cost in the generation mix calls for specific-case modifications in the economic framework, which do not necessarily translate into higher electricity costs for consumers. As observed, the sole implementation of appropriate FITs could help create a stable remuneration framework (of around 100 €/MWh) for the mentioned technologies, at least for the considered generation scenarios (up to doubling the energy generated by the Special Regime in Spain in 2010).
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Keywords
Esterification; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification; Biodiesel; Koras–Nowak test; Reusability
1. Introduction
Development of the reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the esterification of FFA could avoid the problems associated with the use of homogeneous acid catalysts. Literature reported heterogeneous acid catalysts for the esterification includes sulfated ion exchange resins (Nafion and Amberlyst) [8] and [9], sulfated metal oxides (SO42−/ZrO2, SO42−/TiO2, SO42−/SnO, SZ/SiO2) [10], [11], [12] and [13], zeolites (H?ZSM-5, Y and Beta) [14], [15] and [16], and heteropolyacids supported on TiO2, ZrO2, SnO2, SiO2 and Al2O3[17], [18], [19], [20] and [21]. A comparison of the esterification activity of few literature reported catalysts is provided in Table 1.