AcknowledgementThe research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21001098, 51401198, 21307122 and 21103154), Zhejiang Provincial Qianjiang Talents Foundation (2012R10065) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2013M531449 and 2014M560475).
Reactive power; Active power curtailment; Photovoltaic inverter; Distributed generation; VAR control
Australia's Liproxstatin-1 sector is in the midst of a fundamental transformation. On the generation side, renewable energy is expected to provide 20% of Australia's electricity needs by 2020 and low emissions technologies are expected to have replaced almost all conventional generation by 2050. Energy usage patterns are also changing, particularly with the widespread uptake of residential air-conditioning – which has driven growth in peak demand relative to energy consumption and consequently undermined existing energy based revenue structures.
The challenge is to now build the social, technical and regulatory systems to support this transformation. One aspect of this, and the focus of this paper, is the technical challenge of increasing the PV hosting capacity of distribution networks. With PV installations in Australia now nearing 10% of the peak capacity of the National Electricity Market (NEM), concern over the potential impacts that this may have, has led some electricity companies to begin restricting PV installations in particular geographical areas. Such restrictions have been attributed to concerns over power quality, specifically voltage rise problems (, pg. 75). The voltage rise problem is well established as occurring, though its significance in determining limits of PV adoption is not.