Design requirements Clause P of BS EN states

A frequency domain approach, based on coupling FEM with TLM, is used in this work to simulate wave propagation due ground surface loading. Unstructured mesh grids are used in the model allowing us to consider problems of complicated geometries. First, the presented approach is validated against analytical models of TH 302 dynamics in which the eigenfrequencies or critical depths are known. Then it is used to assess the screening effect of various wave barriers. These include different shaped surface barriers and inclusions. Last, the use of a highly compacted geo-material embankment with retaining walls is compared to the use of a conventional embankment. The comparison of the induced vertical surface displacements over a certain distance showed that, overall, the former leads to a reduction of the ground surface transmitted vibrations except at very low frequencies. In fact, for frequencies below around 5 Hz the displacements are amplified with resonance occurring at around 4 Hz.