Fig xA Simplified structure of an involved decision
Box 2. Examples of application of these processes to the Macaronesian islands of Pico (Azores) and Santiago (Cape Verde)In Pico island there is an important soil reserve that must be taken into account: the areas infested with alien vegetation. Although these areas occupy mainly soils of very low quality, they also cover areas that can be turned into pasture land and be therefore used in the compensation process of negotiation with the land owners (Fernandes et al., 2014).In Santiago Island, this land reserve is much more constrained, due to the difficulties of vegetation restoration in the prevalent semi-arid ecological conditions. At the same time, the growing PF-543 of this island (in opposition to what happens in Pico island) and its tendency to mostly concentrate touristic related tertiary activities in the coastal fringe, may determine a tendency of reducing the anthropogenic pressure on the higher areas with a consequent and direct reduction in the demand and intensive land use of these areas (Semedo, 2012).Considering the several constraints associated with the processes of ecological restoration in both islands, the balance of available areas is still positive, due to the possibility of using other areas for restoration or agricultural use, and considering also that some pasture area is not effectively under use and can therefore be more easily negotiated.Thus, it can be stated that, in the Pico example, the compensation regime that would result from transforming good soils presently invaded by alien invasive species into pasture land and agricultural areas (in conjunction with further compensation and management measures), may constitute a strong basis for the process of reconfiguring some land use patterns and promoting the recovery of viable patches of native vegetation (Hortal et al., 2010).In Santiago the availability of the agro-ecological characterization and evaluation framework from Diniz and Matos (1986), allows similar approaches within the particular conservation targets defined for the island. Nevertheless, the touristic development along the shoreline builds the main source of conflict by occupying simultaneously some of the most productive soils and putting a significant stress on important coastal ecosystems (either terrestrial as marine). Areas of particular importance for conservation in areas not subjected to these pressures can eventually be left free by their abandonment due to the migration to the coast and the better employment possibilities that are developing in those areas. This abandonment is not necessarily immediately positive if it is not integrated in the global management system that must be implemented according to the proposed governance model.