The gelation process involves both

2.2.5. FTIR analysis
FTIR spectroscopy was made for both TG101348 and base catalyzed nanosilica powder synthesized with ultrasonic in a FTIR spectroscope (JASCO-FT/IR-460+). It was carried out with the pellet sample made out of sample powder and KBr. The range used was 500–3500 cm−1.
2.2.6. X-ray crystallinity
The powder diffractogram of both acid and base catalyzed nanosilica powder synthesized with ultrasonic were obtained by using a Rigaku, Ultima III X-ray diffractometer, employing Ni filtered CuKα radiation, 40 kV, 30 mA.
3. Result and discussion
Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 represent the plots of ln[ln(Δν)] vs ln(t) for acid and base catalysis sol–gel process respectively.
Fig. 2. Variation of ln[ln(Δν)] with ln(t) for different acid catalyzed samples.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 3. Variation of ln[ln(Δν)] with ln(t) for different base catalyzed sample.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide