Range of cost achieved for

Photovoltaic system at São Francisco de Aiucá: 23 households were supplied using individual PV systems connected within a microgrid [59]. The monthly availability of each residential PV system is 13 kW h. The cost charged for each household is 7.00 USD per month in concept of maintenance and battery change, in addition of an initial 70.00 USD per home connection. The average monthly income of each family is about 136.26 USD, so the expense with electrical supply is a significant 5% of the incomes. These rural GS-9137 would pay 1.11 USD for 13 kW h if served by the local utility through an on grid connection, which is 6 times less than the actual PV system fee. This low price is due to the Government subsidies and the special pricing policy for poor rural consumers. So the main conclusion when analyzing the Aiucá PV project is that the final price charged to the consumer would drop 6 times if the local utility assumed this project, which was financed by the Government and is currently administrated by the local community [34]. This also explains why the local electrical utilities are not interested in the supply of these low income and isolated communities: the tariff that the regulation obligates to apply to this type of consumers does not cover the costs of their electrification. When considering the investment costs of such projects, PV or hybrid may easily overcome the cost of on grid connection and may be more convenient. But when taken into account the commercial profitability of the system, either isolated or on grid, the tariff that should be applied would result in expenses about 6 times higher than the incomes.