Several physical and chemical techniques are available for wastewater treatment such as the common denitrification process used to remove nitrogenous compound by releasing them to the Sorafenib (Mook et al., 2012) and the chemical precipitation used to remove phosphorus through the use of ferrous chloride (Kiran et al., 2014). These methods are becoming less environmentally friendly since they could produce toxic sludge as by-product.
2.1. Maintenance and upscale of microalgae, Chlorella sp.
Green microalgae, Chlorella sp. was isolated from the east coast of Terengganu and maintained in the Microalgae Culture Collection Centre of the Institute of Tropical Aquaculture (AKUATROP), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia. Cultures of microalgae were incubated at a constant temperature of 20 ± 2 °C and maintained at a pH of 6.9 ± 2 under continuous illumination during the cultivation period. For upscaling purpose, the cultures were continuously aerated with sterile-filtered air. Bold’s Basal Medium (BBM) was selected as the cultivation medium. Cultivation vessel was fabricated using clear cylinder Perspex with a working volume of 20 L. The Chlorella sp. biomass was monitored daily the determination of the optical density at 686 nm using Dual-Beam UV–Vis Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1800, Japan).