The acid concentrations used in
The amount of water becomes an important parameter that CYC202 affects the development of the gel structure and consequently the surface area of the carbon cryogel. Babi? et al. (2004) stated that the porosity of carbon cryogel can be controlled during the synthesis process by changing the water ratio. The gel formation depended on the different water ratios, the synthesis process and condition, and feedstock applied. The L/W ratio affected the lignin–furfural gel formations since the surface area of the carbon cryogel significantly changed at different ratios. This is consistent with the observation of Tamon et al. (1999), who found peroxisomes the pores in gel synthesis depended on the amount of distilled water and the total pore volume of gels was larger at low resorcinol to water ratio. This explains the optimum amount of water required in the gel synthesis. The changes in total pore volume directly caused changes to the total surface area. Uniform small carbon cryogel particles could be produced by adjusting the L/W ratio.