Table presents literature cited results on MO production

Table 2 presents literature-cited results on MO production via bioreactor fermentations using crude glycerol and various nutrient supplements. In the case of R. toruloides strains, the highest TDW and MO concentrations have been achieved in this Vatalanib study using both SFM and PSFM hydrolysates as nutrient supplements. MO production via supplementation with crude hydrolysates has been achieved only in limited publications ( Thiru et al., 2011, Uckun Kiran et al., 2013 and Sankh et al., 2013). Uckun Kiran et al. (2013) employed whole rapeseed meal hydrolysates, whereas Thiru et al. (2011) and Sankh et al. (2013) employed corn steep liquor and recycled de-oiled yeast autolysate. The utilisation of commercial nutrient supplements, such as yeast extract and peptone, requires significant expenditure and for this reason it is imperative to replace commercial media with hydrolysates from crude renewable resources. Furthermore, optimisation of resource utilisation could lead to various end-products and in the same time provide the necessary nutrients for the production of fermentation products. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that refining of SFM is feasible providing the opportunity to separate value-added products and produce MO using nutrients from residual streams produced during SFM fractionation. Further optimisation of SFM fractionation could lead to the production of PSFM hydrolysates with optimum composition of nutrients that could enhance TDW and MO production.