The zenith angle Z Z is the angle

Due to the rapid development of PV technology with declining cost, coupling PV with desalination methods has increased considerably in the last few years. PVRO systems are excellent devices for clean water for small remote communities having no grid connections but have access to brackish water or sea water. The reason behind the interest in PVRO system PS-341 its economic benefit and system's design modularity [2], low noise level, low maintenance, long life and non-emissions of greenhouse gases [3]. Battery based PVRO will initially be most cost-competitive for small-scale systems where other technologies are less competitive [4].
In the PVRO system the workhorse is the PV system that needs to be studied to harvest the maximum possible power. The amount of solar energy incident on a PV panel in various time scales is a complex function of many factors including the local radiation climatology, the orientation and tilt of the exposed panel surface and the ground reflection properties [5]. The performance of solar PV panel is strong function of surface azimuth angle and angle of inclination with the horizon and it is due to the fact that both orientation angles influence the incidence angle of solar radiation reaching the PV panel. The analysis of the influential parameters on the PV power generation is vital to harvest the maximum possible power from PV panel.