The shielding and un-shielding method is a fast test method but needs manual intervention actions. The natural experimental method can be easily carried out and save workload but needs relatively longer time. The drastic changing weather is the best condition for the natural experimental method to select suitable dynamic test data.
Above all, it BMS-582664 can be concluded that the new Laplace test method can achieve the function of evaluating solar collector by identifying accurate collector parameters under transient weather conditions. But for a complete test method, further studies are still needed on the investigation of the behavior of the method for the complete range of the acceptable testing conditions and for different collector types, in order to obtain safe conclusions regarding the repeatability, accuracy and robustness of the method.
Desalination; Reverse osmosis; Topologies; Multi-criteria analysis; Renewable energy sources
Fresh water is essential for life of all species. There are many regions that do not have adequate sources of potable water. Modern lifestyle and the crucial role of water in the economic development renders the desalination process a necessity for such regions. Desalination is an energy intensive operation that makes it expensive especially in the case of remote installations. For this reason, research is focused on the use of Renewable Energy Sources to provide necessary energy in a reliable way and at the same time keeping cost as low as possible. Various sources of energy have been tested either individually or in synergy resulting in different configurations to satisfy the desalination energy requirements ,  and .