Photovoltaic characteristics of the assembled DSSCs were determined under the irradiation of a 35 W xenon headlamp with a color temperature of 6000 K. The intensity of light at the surface of DSSC was adjusted to be 835 W/m2 using a Si solar cell with known Isc and Voc under 835 W/m2 irradiation. During irradiation, DSSC was covered with a shading mask with aperture area of 0.57 cm2. This value represents the active surface area of photoanode under irradiation. The current density-voltage (I–V) curve measurement was carried out 6 h after injection of electrolyte. This allows the electrolyte to penetrate through the pores of meso-porous TiO2 layer. The I–V curves of DSSCs were measured using a combination of a function generator and an oscilloscope as it Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate has been used for obtaining the characteristic curve of diodes, see Fig. 1. In DNA hybridization setup, DSSC was connected in series with a resistor of 180 Ω. The function generator applied an AC voltage, with frequency of 0.02 Hz and amplitude of 1 V, between the two terminals. Channel I and channel II of oscilloscope measured the instantaneous voltage across resistor (VR) and the instantaneous voltage across DSSC (VDSSC), respectively. The instantaneous voltage across resistor represents the instantaneous current flowing through the DSSC according to the relation; I(mA)=VR(mV)/180(Ω)I(mA)=VR(mV)/180(Ω). The instantaneous current density flowing through DSSC and the instantaneous voltage across DSSC were measured at several points and the I–V curve was plotted by fitting a curve to the obtained data points.