For the fabrication of photoanode, fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass (Solaronix) with a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/square was used as a TCO glass. The paste was deposited on FTO glass by doctor blade method and it Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate was sintered at 480 °C for 40 min. The thickness of meso-porous TiO2 layers was measured by a digital micrometer with 0.001 mm resolution. It was observed that the thickness of TiO2 layers is independent of R and it was approximately equal to 13 μm. The reason of this observation will be explained in section 3. The porosity (P) of meso-porous TiO2 layers was calculated as P=(1−ρapp/ρt)×100P=(1−ρapp/ρt)×100, where ρapp is stimulus the apparent density of mesoporous TiO2 layer and ρt is the theoretical density of anatase TiO2 equal to 3.9 g/cm3  and . In order to measure ρapp, TiO2 layers with 11 cm × 1.5 cm dimension were fabricated and the weight of TiO2 layers were measured after stretching from substrate and ρapp was calculated as the ratio of the mass to the volume of TiO2 layer.