## Fig nbsp xA Flowchart of the developed optimisation

Fig. 2. Flowchart of the developed optimisation procedure.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

4. Analysis of a case study in Northern Italy

The previously described optimisation procedure has been applied to the study of a real district heating test case. The objective of the study A-317491 the validation of a solar collector system on economical terms.

The test case represents a small scale district heating with a peak winter thermal demand slightly above 4 MW. The site is equipped with a CHP with rated electrical power of 1064 kW with constant electrical and thermal efficiencies equal to ηe = 0.398, ηt = 0.460 (coefficient a0 = 0 and k0 = 0 in (6)) and MOT = MST = 6 h. The boiler has a rated thermal power of 5 MW with a constant efficiency of ηB = 0.92. The add-on of a thermal storage with a maximum capacity of 2 MWh with a self discharge term of 0.5%/h is hair shaft considered [21]. To perform the analysis, three cases are simulated and optimised by adding one component at a time in order to assess its economic impact. The cases are summarised in Table 1.