Fig xA PN and PM emission characteristics at CR
Fig. 14. PN and PM emission characteristics at CR 13.3.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Again, the size spectra of particulates were analyzed to understand the changes in the particulate emission characteristics. Similar to the results obtained at CR 9.5, the peak of the particulate number shifted toward the smaller size. Simultaneously, particles with sizes larger than 50 nm decreased significantly (see Fig. 15). This result GSK2636771 in accordance with Daniel et al.  and Catapano et al. . Reduction in large particles led to significant reduction of PM because large-sized particles comprised a greater mass portion. As mentioned above, such results can be explained by enhanced suppression of particulate formation. The results may also be attributed to the slow-down of the coagulation process of smaller particles into large particles due to characteristics of ethanol .
Fig. 15. Particle size spectra at CR 13.3.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide