Energy labels are usually directed at changing end-user behaviour and were first seen in use in domestic goods and white goods in the early 1990s (Bertoldi et al., 1999). Within these product categories certain successes have been seen owing to the implementation of product Cycloheximide labels, but these cannot be seen as isolated policies as markets, areas and countries differ greatly (Boardman, 2004).
The experiences in OECD countries have been summarized by Geller et al. (2006) and they concluded in their cross-going analysis that policies can lead to substantial energy savings. Minimum efficiency and strict regulation programmes can be effective especially if they are continuously updated to fit the product and its development pace. Furthermore, the authors found that government funded R&D can help lower the risks and accelerate the innovation pace. Recent work (Gillingham et al., 2009) supports the majority of these findings, but adds a crucial point concerning the lack of empirical data that in general limits this kind of analysis.