Fig nbsp xA Inter relationship between urbanization
2.3. Electricity generation from thermal power plants
The development of GHGs from thermal power is closely tied with India's SB 431542 policy objectives of universal energy access and energy security. India had already built the world's fifth largest installed capacity for power generation as of 2009 and almost tripled electricity generation from 289 TW h (TWh) to 899 TWh from 1990 to 2009 ( IEA, 2011a). In 2009, total installed capacity in India was 176 GW and the generated electricity (excluding renewable) was 899 TWh, see Fig. 3 for country wise comparisons.
Fig. 3. India is amongst top 5 countries for installed capacity and power generation (Source: IEA, 2011a).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Coal represents 112 GW or 56% of total installed capacity and 71% of total generated electricity (see Fig. 4), diesel and natural gas collectively account for 10% of installed capacity and generate 10.1% of electricity (IEA, 2012). Under NPS, total power capacity would reach 779 GW in 2035, compared to 763 GW under the 450 Scenario. Both scenarios contain two major findings. To reach 779 GW in 2035, capacity must grow at a CAGR of 5.9% or over 20 GW per year from 2009 through 2035. Meanwhile, Government of India estimates that power generation capacity would continue to increase substantially, by 76 GW under the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012–17), heavily dependent upon coal, to the extent of 62.7 GW or 83% of new capacity (MoP, 2012). Considering the largest expansion annually so far was about 18 GW in FY 2011/12, this scale of addition would pose a major challenge to the Indian energy and emission pathway.