Our results suggest potential policy measures to mitigate losses in carbon stocks from urban land use and cover change for Changzhou and other fast-growing cities in China. Impervious surfaces in existing urbanized areas such as parking lots, public squares and pavements can be replaced by vegetated surfaces (e.g., bricks with gaps between them that allow growth of herbaceous plants with belowground Dequalinium stored in root system) to mitigate negative effects of soil sealing on accumulation of soil organic carbon. Roof gardens on top of buildings provide valuable places for distribution of limited urban green spaces, thereby greatly increasing urban biomass. On the other hand, legislation should be implemented to protect green open spaces and forest land and preserve soil carbon stocks from expansion of urban land in rapidly urbanizing areas. Green belts in these areas not only serve as buffer zones that help to control expansion of urban land, but also serve as the key components capable of storing large amounts of biomass carbon over time.