Internal measures can help optimize the material and LDC000067 consumption and reduce waste emissions within an ISM, while external measures can exploit the spillover effect and create a collaborative business model for CO2 emission reduction in larger geographical boundaries. The results of our case showed that internal symbiotic measures contributed more to CO2 emission reduction than the external measures did. Factors influencing the adoption of the two types of measures include economic profitability, technological possibility, and information availability. With the relatively low landfill fee in China, there is conditioned response lack of incentives for enterprises to search for and take advantage of waste utilization opportunities with other actors. In addition, the properties of waste may not fully satisfy the requirements of its consumers. For example, the BF slag used in cement industry may affect the quality of the high strength cement. This makes one more obstacle to establishing synergies among enterprises. In China, there is also lack of information platforms for the waste and byproduct exchanges which could help correct the information asymmetry.