3.8. Unburnt Hydrocarbon (HC) at standard injection timing
3.9. Unburnt Hydrocarbon at advanced and retarded injection timing
In advanced injection timing unburned hydrocarbon emission decreased by 18.8% and retarded injection timing increased by 51.2% for the same test condition. Advanced injection timing the air fuel mixture compressed by the piston moves to the top dead center relatively at high temperature caused earlier start of combustion. Temperature EHT 1864 increased, flame quenching layer thickness is decreased . Advanced injection timing 20.12% HC decreased and retarded injection timing 19.23% increased for same operating condition. Methanol molecules are polar, which cannot be absorbed easily by non-polar molecule lubrication oil layer, because of the cylinder charge, being compressed as the piston moves to the TDC .
3.10. Nitric oxide (NOx) at standard injection
4. Combustion at standard injection timing
5. Low heat rejection engine
6. Economic study