The numerical models include the one dimensional
Experimental and combined modelling/experimental works done so far include: (1) system efficiency and its relevance to various design parameters, surface treatment and structure improvements , , , , , ,  and ; (2) FK228 impacts of the operational parameters on system’s working performance  and ; (3) the thermal performances variation with different colours of the absorber plate  and ; (4) overheating protection and its relevance to the material composition, surface treatment, structure modification, control method and ambient environment , , , , ,  and ; and (5) comparison between the modelling results and experimental results ,  and  and subsequent model validation.
Jie Ji et al.  conducted the outdoor experiment of a fitness dual-functional solar facade to validate the dynamic numerical model based on practical air-conditioned room design conditions, as shown in Fig. 11. The water heat gain in the tank was found to be 3.41 MJ/m2 and 6.57 MJ/m2, based on the water temperature rise from the initial 26.8/18.2 °C at 8:00 to the final temperature of 41.8/47.6 °C at 16:00 with the overall thermal efficiency of 50.8%/48.4%, as shown in Fig. 12. The operational performance of the solar façade in a typical autumn day seemed to be better than in a typical summer day.