The European Union itself recognized that Directive 98/70/EC and Directive 2009/28/EC failed to ensure voluntary schemes compliance with sustainability criteria and transparency, since they Cathepsin G Inhibitor do not contain any provisions concerning the recognition process of those voluntary schemes (, Amendment 23). In the regulations there is a lack of criteria that those schemes need to comply with in order to obtain recognition, which maximizes the risks from rent seeking behavior. Although certification may improve the biofuel sustainability performances at the production site, voluntary schemes are not likely to avoid other indirect effects, such as the impact on food security, food availability or indirect land use changes (ILUC). Therefore additional requirements are taxon needed to address, for instance, GHG emissions, food security and food availability, increase of food prices and ILUC . Moreover, specific measures to protect indigenous communities’ land right need to be introduced to avoid the displacement of local and indigenous communities resulting from the use of land for growing biofuel feedstocks. Finally, the voluntary schemes should guarantee the environmental sustainability in the areas involved .