Quantitative correlations to describe the initial

Fig. 4. Spray penetration (a) and normalized spray penetration curve (b) under different injection pressures, data is provided of ethanol fuel, ambient pressure: 500 kPa; fuel temperature: 55 °C.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The viscous force and surface tension force involved in the spray formation are mainly dependent on the dynamic viscosity and surface tension of the liquid. These physical properties can be altered by altering the liquid temperature and they Microcystin-LR also vary among different types of fuel. Fig. 5 shows the normalized spray penetration curves of ethanol under different temperatures. When increasing fuel temperature from 0 °C to 90 °C, the dynamic viscosity of ethanol decreases from 1.4MPas to 0.2MPas while its surface tension decreases from 24.8 mN/m to 16.1 mN/m. The results show axons the initial stage is accelerated in low viscous force and surface tension force conditions.
Fig. 5. Normalized spray penetration curve under different fuel temperatures, data was provided with ethanol; injection pressure: 5 MPa; ambient pressure: 500 kPa.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide