Kinetic modeling for thermal degradation is particularly complicated
2.1. Materials and apparatus
Characteristics of materials (on dry basis).Proximate analysis (wt.%)Elemental analysis (wt.%)Density (kg/m3)Net calorific value (MJ/kg)VMaRMbAshcFCd,fNCHSCleOfWS18.104.22.1682.83.822.214.171.124.251.2291.415.7Pap82.21.09.96.126.96.36.199.4–54.5217.115.6PVC94.9––5.1–38.84.7–49.4–1380.023.8aVM is for volatile Busulfan determined based on ASTM E897.bRM is for residual moisture determined based on ASTM E790.cAsh amount was determined based on ASTM E1102.dFC is for fixed carbon.eChlorine amount was determined based on ASTM D4208.fBy difference.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
2.2. Procedure and conditions
The experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (NETZSCH STA 409, Bavaria, Germany) under N2 and the environments of N2 with different extent of CO2 agent participation. The weight precision for the STA 409 is 0.01 mg. Samples including WS, Pap and the mixture of WS or Pap with 10 wt.% PVC addition. Total amount of 5 ± 0.5 mg samples were heated under 80 ml/min inflow gas at heating rates 10, 20 and 40 K/min from ambient temperature to 1270 K. N2 fraction was omitted in writing e.g. the atmosphere of 75%N2/25%CO2 is abbreviated to 25%CO2 for short. Small amount (∼5 mg for each run) and tiny particles (<200 μm) can largely diminish the heat and mass transfer limitations during degradation process ( Lopez-Gonzalez et al., 2013). Reproductivity was guaranteed by at least two runs for each measurement and the error was measured to be within ±2%.