The similarity of changes in total PCDF and PCN concentrations (increases by treatment in the rotary kiln and decreases by treatment in the sealed ampoules) indicate that they PD153035 hydrochloride have behavioral similarities. However, for all ash samples the kiln treatment induced higher proportional increases in PCN concentrations than PCDF concentrations, while the ampoule treatment induced lower proportional reductions in PCDF concentrations than PCN concentrations. These findings suggest that PCN formation likely occurred outside the kiln as the ash was removed, since the ampoule concentrations were low. The PCN formation also must have been extremely rapid, given the amounts formed. On the other hand, PCDFs did not degrade as completely as PCNs in the ampoules and the PCDF increase in the kiln could have resulted from both in-kiln and post-treatment processes. The reductions in chlorination degrees were similar to embryo observed for ash A in the screening study (Table 2) while the PCDF concentrations increased instead of decreasing as in the screening study.