2.5. Characterization of ZM and PANI nanoparticles and PANI/ZM nanocomposite
X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of MA treated ZM, PANI and PANI/ZM nanocomposite was recorded by using powder X-ray diffractometer (Rigaku Mini-Flox, USA). FTIR analysis of samples was also obtained using a SHIMADZU 8400S FTIR spectrometer in KBr medium at room temperature in the region of 4000–500 cm−1. The morphology of MA treated ZM, PANI and PANI/ZM nanocomposite was investigated by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), (PHILIPS, CM200, 20–200 kV, magnification 1,000,000×). The weight loss of PANI and PANI/ZM nanocomposite was determined in the range of room temperature to 700 °C by using a thermogravimetric analysis (PerkinElmer TGA system, USA), in an N2 EPZ-6438 at a heating rate of 10 °C/min.
2.6. Property evaluation of PANI/alkyd and PANI/ZM nanocomposite/alkyd coatings
Mechanical property such as cross-cut adhesion was evaluated as per ASTM standards. Corrosion tests were carried out in acid, alkali, and salt solution (5 wt.% each) by placing the MS strips in beakers and coated samples were immersed in corrosion media till corrosion occurred and cracks were developed. Each sample was exposed to corrosion media approximately for 200 h. The corrosion rate (VC) for each samples  was estimated by using the expression (1):equation(1)VC=ΔgAtdwhere Δg is the weight loss in grams for each sample, A is the exposed area of the sample in mm2, t is the time of exposure in years, and d is the density of the metallic species in g/mm3. The weight loss of test sample was considered after cautiously washing the MS plates with deionized water till the deposited corrosion product was removed and then moisture was removed from the samples by drying at 60 °C (±1) in an oven.