In order to simulate the

reported that the rate coefficient of chloramine decay ranged from 0.0031 to 0.0054 h−1[40], and free chlorine also showed a high decay rate in water distribution systems [41]. Therefore, due to the rapid decay of effective chlorine (free chlorine and inorganic chloramines) and the stability of ineffective chlorine, tap water at the end of pipe network would face the shortage of disinfecting efficacy although the total chlorine concentration analyzed using the classical DPD method showed a satisfying value.