Formation of ineffective chlorine during chlorination of humic acid Fig

3.3. Formation of ineffective chlorine during chlorination of humic acid
Fig. 3. Formation of ineffective chlorine during the chlorination of humic uk101 solutions with DOC ranged from 0 to 15 mg-C/L (OC: Organic chloramines; initial free chlorine = 5 mg/L as Cl2; chlorination time = 30 min; pH = 7.0, phosphate buffer concentration = 5 mM; temperature = 25 ± 1 °C).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.4. Proportions of ineffective chlorine in different water samples
Fig. 4. Proportions of different chlorine species in water samples collected from (a) DWTP1, (b) TW, (c) DWTP2 and (d) DWTP3 (OC: Organic chloramines, IC: Ineffective chlorine; pH = 7.0, phosphate buffer concentration = 5 mM; temperature = 25 ± 1 °C).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.5. Formation of ineffective chlorine over time in finished water