Appendix A. Supplementary data
Supplementary data 1.
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Immobilization; Heavy metals; Sodium sulfide (Na2S); Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTCNa); Metal sulfide precipitates
Heavy metals such as copper and zinc are essential micronutrients and vital to all living organisms. However, elevated heavy metal concentrations in soil may cause toxic effects on soil organisms and can affect soil Apicidin functioning  and . Recently, with the rapid development of industrialization and economic, indiscriminate waste disposal practices have led to significant build–up in soils of a wide range of metals, and many health authorities are becoming increasingly concerned about the effects of heavy metals on environment and human health ,  and .
Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTCNa), which has been widely used as a collector in sulfide mineral flotation  and , has strong chelating reactions with some heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Co, and Zn to form four-membered ring chelates . Therefore, radially symmetrical may present potential stabilization effect on mobile heavy metals via the generation of sulfide compounds. And compared with the existing dithiocarbamate immobilization agents, DDTCNa is much cheaper and accessible. However, there is little research about its immobilization effect on heavy metals. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the immobilization effect of DDTCNa on Cu(II) and Zn(II) through column leaching experiments in laboratory, accompanying with the data for sodium sulfide (Na2S) for comparison, and to reveal the immobilization mechanism.