Since WWTPs can remove IBP from waters with

Since WWTPs can remove IBP from waters with inadequate efficiency, new research efforts are currently being made to find novel and efficient treatments to be integrated within the WWTP schemes. A first line of activities includes the transformation of IBP into harmless compounds through photocatalysis [9], Chemical Atazanavir [10], Fenton processes [7] and [11], ozonation [12], sonochemical degradation [13] and cavitation [14]. All these applications have been put forward only recently and, even if the results are promising, there is still some uncertainty at the genesis of degradation compounds and by-products, which should be further investigated. In order to overcome this drawback and to work out an effective depuration technology, a second line of investigation refers to the application of adsorption processes, mainly conducted on either natural materials [15] or activated carbons [16], [17], [18] and [19].
Adsorption has been widely used for water, groundwater or wastewater treatment, because endothermic combines good efficiencies with a reliable and robust process configuration [8] and [20]. It is a very versatile process that can be used for organic compounds and heavy metal capture thanks to a wide spectrum of adsorption targets [21], [22] and [23] as well as for single or multiple contaminations [20] and [24]. The wide application of the adsorption process is also due to the possibility of using different kinds of adsorbents, including natural and waste materials either raw or activated [15], [16], [21] and [23].