In order to mitigate thermal polarization, scaling/fouling and possible concentration polarization, MD can benefit from the solutions developed by the process industry to tackle the similar problems in other processes. For instance, most of the conventional techniques applied for fouling and concentration polarization Gefitinib in pressure driven membrane processes  may provide interesting solution to mitigate thermal and concentration polarization in MD. However, due to limited flux (and therefore products), the techniques that consume too much energy may not be suitable for MD. After considering these factors, the most interesting techniques for MD are limited to only a few candidates. A pros and cons analysis of different state-of-the-art hydraulic techniques practiced for conventional membrane processes with application potential for MD has been provided in Table 1. Most of these techniques cannot only reduce the fouling in MD but vaccine can also improve temperature distribution within the membrane module. The techniques can also have “wash away” effect on surface scales/crystals.