# The XRD diffraction pattern Fig indicates the presence of a

The ZnO thin films are referred to as ZT(n), where T is the crystallization temperature and n is the number of deposited layers.

2.2. Characterization

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded on a Shimadzu XRD 6000 diffractometer using a monochromatized X-ray beam from nickel-filtered Cu kα K02288 (λ = 0.15406 nm, 30 kV, 30 mA) from 30° to 70° 2θ using a step-scanning mode with a step width of 0.02° and a fixed time of 4 s.

The crystallite size of the ZnO thin films was calculated by Scherrer?s formula Eq. (1)[19] and [20] using the diffraction peaks of the (100), (002), and (101) ZnO planes (2θ = 31.8, 34.5, and 36.4°, respectively) – the three most intense reflections.equation(1)D(hkl)=0.94λβcosθwhere Dhkl is the crystallite size, λ = 0.15406 nm, β is the corrected half maximum peak width and θ is the diffraction angle in degrees. The K value equal to 0.94 was used because cycadeoids is more suitable to calculate the peak breadth by full width at half maximum (FWHM) [20].