Very recently, due to its excellent electrical conductivity, ultrashort pathway for Li+ ions, large specific surface area, remarkable structural flexibility and prominent chemical stability, as a kind of novel two-dimensional material, graphene or RGO has been used as an ideal matrix for anchoring active nanomaterials such as SnO2, TiO2, CoO, Fe2O3, Li4Ti5O12 and silicon, to prepare unique composite as electrode materials for LIBs with improved electrochemical performance ,  and . In these nanocomposites, graphene or RGO acts as not only a conductive agent for highly efficient transport of charge carriers, but also a substrate to accommodate volume changes and prevent self-aggregation of anchoring nanocrystals during lithium insertion/extraction process. Therefore, it BIBF 1202 is believed that hybrid materials of nanosized MnO and flexible and highly conductive graphene or RGO and can efficiently utilize the merits of both components, thereby exhibiting superior lithium storage performance. Despite recent research on the hybrid materials of nanosized MnO and graphene or RGO , , ,  and , to our best knowledge, a composite combining nanosized polyhedral MnO (p-MnO) with RGO for LIBs has been rarely reported. In this work, we report a facile strategy of homogeneous precipitation, subsequent reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with hydrazine under microwave irradiation and final thermal annealing for the fabrication of p-MnO/RGO nanocomposite. The characterizations show that p-MnO nanocrystals are homogeneously anchored onto the RGO nanosheets. When evaluated as an anode material for LIBs, the obtained nanocomposite exhibits superior anode performances including large reversible capacity, excellent long-term cycling stability and high rate capability, thus implying great potential as an anode material for lithium storage.