Powder crystal and morphology characterization

Table 1.
BET surfaces and crystallite size (calculated by Debye-Scherrer) of BMY 14802 CGO–CuO sample compositions: as-prepared and after heat treatment (900 °C, 2 h).Sample (mol/mol%)CodeHeat Treatment (°C)SBET (m2/g)CGO Crystallite size (nm)65 mol%Ce0.80 Gd0.20O2−δ-35 mol%CuOCGO-35CuOAs-prepared11.6519.0450 mol%Ce0.80Gd0.20O2−δ-50 mol%CuOCGO-50CuOAs-prepared15.1619.4135 mol%Ce0.80Gd0.20O2−δ-65 mol%CuOCGO-65CuOAs-prepared23.8812,6665 mol%Ce0.80Gd0.20O2−δ-35 mol%CuOCGO-35CuO_9009000.5648.1150 mol%Ce0.80Gd0.20O2−δ-50 mol%CuOCGO-50CuO_9009000.5235.7935 mol%Ce0.80Gd0.20O2−δ-65 mol%CuOCGO-65CuO_9009000.8545.04Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
For the calculation, the following final state valences were assumed: C(+4); O(−2); H(+1); N(0); Cu(+2); Gd(+3) and Ce(+4). These valences should be balanced by the total valences of the fuel; thus the stoichiometric composition of the redox mixture, in order to release the maximum energy for the reaction, demands that m=2.12, 2.02 or 1.91 mol of urea for x=0.65, 0.5 or 0.35 respectively (being m=(10+4.20x)/6).