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Growing evidence suggests tumors are maintained by cancer stem cells; having said that, their nature remains controversial. Inside a HoxA9-Meis1 (H9M) model of acute myeloid The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) leukemia (AML), we found that tumor-initiating activity existed in 3, immunophenotypically distinct compartments, corresponding to disparate lineages over the typical hematopoietic hierarchy-stem/progenitor cells (Lin(-)kit(+)) and committed progenitors on the myeloid (Gr1(+)kit(+)) and lymphoid lineages (Lym(+)kit(+)). These distinct tumor-initiating cells (TICs) clonally recapitulated the immunophenotypic spectrum with the original tumor in vivo (which include cells having a less-differentiated immunophenotype) and shared signaling networks, this kind of that in vivo pharmacologic targeting of conserved TIC survival Protease Inhibitor Libraries pathways (DNA methyltransferase and MEK phosphorylation) considerably increased survival.

Collectively, H9M AML is organized as an atypical hierarchy that defies the strict lineage marker boundaries and unidirectional differentiation of ordinary hematopoiesis. Furthermore, this suggests that in particular malignancies tumor-initiation exercise (or "cancer stemness") can represent a cellular state that exists independently of distinct immunophenotypicselleck Raf inhibitor definition.