Repeated restraint stress not only elevated baseline levels of play fighting in P28 males, but also eliminated sensitivity to the stimulatory effects of ethanol, with no ethanol-induced facilitation of play fighting evident at any dose. The lack of ethanol-induced facilitation of play fighting in stressed P28 males is likely related, at least in part, to the dramatic stress-associated increase in baseline levels of this adolescent-characteristic form of social interactions from which it HS-173 might be difficult to see further stimulatory effects . Indeed, among P28 females (where repeated restraint did not influence baseline levels of play fighting), ethanol-associated facilitation of play fighting was still evident, although they required a higher ethanol dose relative to their non-stressed counterparts for this effect to emerge (1.0 g/kg versus 0.5 g/kg).
5. Alterations associated with repeated ethanol: immediate and delayed consequences.
To a large extent, the studies transition reaction have assessed long-lasting anxiety-like alterations induced by AIE have included only male subjects. However, the inclusion of female subjects in such studies is important, given human data regarding gender differences in prevalence of alcohol use disorders and in negative consequences of excessive alcohol use  and . Indeed, adult women consume less alcohol and have fewer alcohol-related problems than men, with 18.6% of men and 8.4% of women demonstrating a lifetime prevalence for alcohol dependence . However, the rate of alcohol use disorders is not different between boys and girls aged 12 to 17 . Taken together, these observations suggest that adolescent males are at higher risk to become alcohol-dependent later in life than adolescent females.