This apparent increase in vulnerability to mild sensory impoverishment in ethanol-exposed animals is somewhat similar to the increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress seen after prenatal ethanol exposure , ,  and  and to mild hypoxic events following exposure to ethanol during the first neonatal week of life . In all of these cases mild manipulations that do not cause significant effects in control animals alter outcomes in ET animals to a magnitude not anticipated by simple cumulative effects suggesting that programming during early development is a major factor in late life outcomes.
4.4. Age effect
In general, social play measures tend to increase in frequency from P18 to peak around P30–40, waning thereafter as they INT-777 approach adulthood (~ P50–60) . The female social play data from the current study appears to follow this pattern with the younger P28 females engaged in more social interactive activities than older females. However, the male social play results show a consistent plateau, suggesting that cohesion-adhesion theory may have reached their peak at P28 and have not yet begun their decline at P42. This would follow the pattern of males taking longer to reach maturity landmarks in relation to female offspring , however, recent work by Hamilton et al.  shows persistence of fetal ethanol-induced deficits well into adulthood in male offspring. Thus, although females do tend to mature faster than males, maturation may not be enough to explain the persistence of the behavioral deficits in the male offspring.