In the case of Region

The electric charge transport in the self-associated liquids composed of hydrogen-bonded linear chains, is still a poorly explored problem if compared to the liquids where the basic structure is the network of hydrogen bonds.[15], [16] and [17] Water is the best example here and the intensive studies, mainly theoretical, were carried out on the possible mechanisms of the ABT-538 conductivity in that liquid.[18] and [19] The main motive in those investigations is the old Grotthuss idea[20] on the proton-hopping mechanism. Actually, the mechanism is assumed to involve the conversion between two main ionic structures of water: the H5O2+ (Zundel cation) and H9O4+ (Eigen cation), but the problem is still in debate.[21], [22] and [23]
A separation of the conceivable proton contribution from the total electrical conductivity of non-aqueous hydrogen-bonded liquids seems to be a hard task. It is mainly due to the ionic impurities which are omnipresent in liquids and which dissociate depending on the liquid permittivity and the temperature. That circumstance creates a conductivity background which is often too high for the detection of the proton contribution in total electrical conductivity. That problem has arised in our recent paper on neat EHU,[25] where the conductivity data as a function of both the viscosity and the temperature were precisely analyzed but the conclusions on the nature of charge carriers were not univocally determined.