Fig. 4. Competition mechanism of the driving forces on the HS particles during acyclic EMF process. FE, FTMP, Ecritical and E represent the electrostatic force, TMP forces, critical electric field intensity and the practical electric field intense on particles, respectively. HI, HII and HIII represent the thickness of Layers I, II and III, respectively. △F stands for the difference value between FE and FTMP. V0 stands for the horizontal velocity of cross-flow, while V△F stands for the vertical velocity that tsa hdac derived from △F effect on the particles.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
A part of HS particles that have relatively higher charge-to-mass ratios, reflected in higher up and meet Ecritical ≤ E or FE ≥ FTMP, tend to approach the anode plate and form a relatively stable adsorbent layer, called concentrated layer (Layer I). At steady state, due to both back diffusion and electrophoresis, the rate of convective movement of the particles at the boundary of Layers I and II toward the membrane surface is equal to the rate of migration of particles away from the membrane surface.