Thermoelectric phenomena which involve thermal and

Electromagnetic properties were investigated by a precise resonance based cavity perturbation method using ZVA50 vector network analyzer. The following formula were used to calculate either complex permeability or complex permittivity of the prepared samples [11].equation(3)υ′=1+12(f1−f2f2)(Vν)equation(4)υ″=(V4ν)(Q1−Q2Q1Q2)where υ? implies either ε′ or μ′, υ? implies either ε″ or μ″, V   A 844606 volume of the cavity, νν is volume of the sample, f1 is resonant frequency of the cavity with sample, f2 is resonant frequency of the cavity without sample, Q1 is Quality factor with sample and Q2 is Quality factor without sample. Fig. 4(a) illustrates the frequency spectra of the real part (ε′) of permittivity of the samples Z, Z1and Z2 over the frequency range 1.6 GHz to 4 GHz. The measured data infer nerve cord the value of ε′ of sample Z2 is higher than the other samples at frequencies 2 GHz and 2.5 GHz. This is attributed to the fact that Zn2+ ions might be evaporated from the ferrite surface during high temperature processing that leads to the formation of Fe2+ ions. Since Fe2+ ions are easily polarizable, the samples with higher zinc concentration will have higher value of permittivity [14] and [5]. Cyclic voltammogram study (CV Diagram) shown in Fig. 5 also confirm the conversion of Fe3+ ions into Fe2+ ions.