After polymerization the as synthesized PPy

time) appeared when the electrolyte changed from organic to aqueous conditions. The as-synthesized PPy/DBS film cycled in PC electrolyte (Fig. 6c) showed consumed charge in the range of ±0.7 μC with surface conductivity of 2.5 ± 0.27 S cm−1. The PPy/DBS film cycled in organic electrolyte (M1), where cation mobility was detected in actuation cycles, showed an increase in consumed charged of ±5 μC and surface conductivity of 17.2 ± 4.6 S cm−1.