Fig nbsp xA Effects of weight percent of SiO

Fig. 7. The cross-section SEM images of (a) polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane, (b) unmodified NF membrane and (c) 0.1 wt.% SiO2 modified membrane.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The top surface SEM images of the unmodified and SiO2 modified NF membranes are shown in Fig. 8. From Fig. 8 it can be found that the many NHS-SS-Biotin were gathered on the top surface of modified membranes, particularly at high contents of SiO2 nanoparticles. Also, it is clear that the surface of the unmodified NF membrane is smoother than the proteinoids surface of the SiO2 modified NF membranes.
Fig. 8. The surface SEM images of (a) unmodified NF membrane, (b) 0.03 wt.% SiO2 modified membrane, (c) 0.05 wt.% SiO2 modified membrane and (d) 0.1 wt.% SiO2 modified membrane.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.4. Performance of NF membranes
3.4.1. Aqueous solution
Fig. 9. Effects of weight percent of SiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solution on solvent flux at 2 wt.% PEI.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide